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FGOU VPO
"THE KUBAN STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY"

Viticulture Chair


Round seal:
"The Kuban State
Agrarian University.
Department of Horticulture
and Viticulture"
APPROVED:
Head of the Chair,
Doctor of Biology, Professor
(Signed) /Troshin L.P./
November 19, 2008


REPORT
Effects of vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active
substances on Bianca grape quality and yield rates

KRASNODAR
2007-2008


A vineyard patch for vine of Bianca variety was laid at KUBAN training farm to investigate prospects available for cultivation of standard-supported vine bushes without their sheltering for wintertime in 1999. Vine bush planting pattern: 3õ2 m, forming: high-standard two-shoulder horizontal cordon.

The farm is located at the third agro-climatic area of Krasnodar Region (Kuban Central Zone), for which temperate continental climate is typical. Total active temperature, per vegetation period, is 34510Ñ. In terms of precipitation rates (643 mm annually on the average), this area is within insufficient moisture zone. Soils of the test patch are of the super-yield, low-humus, mildly leached black earth type.

Purpose of the tests in 2007-2008 was investigation of effects produced by biologically active substances (BAS) and activated water upon grape quality and yield rates. Water activation was performed with use of Aquator technology matrix version.

The tests included four methods of vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances: use of Sprout, silicon, potassium lignohumate and zircon respectively and four methods of vine bush foliar treatment with water activated by BAS properties transferred upon it through use of Aquator device. As controls, bushes of this vineyard patch were used, and such control bushes were, concurrently, sprayed with the usual tap water.

Each test method was applied to 20 test bushes. Every year within the vegetation time, four foliar treatments were performed. The first treatment was made in the beginning of sprout and blossom truss intensive growth period (second vegetation phase), the second one - just before vine blooming, the third one - 7 days after the vine blooming was over (at the grape growth phase), the fourth one - during the initial grape ripening.

In 2007 the harvesting was made on August 28-31, in 2008 on September 8-9. Records of the harvest yields were made for each treatment method separately. During the harvesting, all grape clusters were counted on each test vine bush, gathered, weighed and average per-grape cluster mass was measured for each test method. To measure crop mass per 100 grapes and grape juice saccharinity, average grape cluster samples were selected. Grape juice saccharinity was measured in vitro, with use of densimeter, in terms of specific must density. The data are shown in the table below.

Table 1:
Effects produced by vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances and with activated water upon yield rates and quality of grapes in 2007 (variety: Bianca)

Method Substance used for the purpose Grape yields Average grape
cluster mass, g
Mass per 100 grapes, g Grape juice
saccharinity, g/100 cm3
Centner/ ha %% of the control
First Sprout 108,0 151,6 104,1 135,9 24,2
Act. water 122,2 171,6 128,4 148,2 25,6
Second Silicon 116,6 163,8 88,7 136,4 25,5
Act. water 120,9 169,8 101,0 144,8 25,6
Third Potassium lingohumate 96,7 135,8 88,7 163,3 24,6
Act. water 114,8 161,2 85,0 157,8 24,8
Fourth Zircon 75,0 105,6 85,7 143,1 23,0
Act. water 80,0 112,4 79,3 162,5 25,1
Fifth (control) Tap water 71,2 100,0 89,5 144,3 24,8

It is evident from data shown in the Table 1 that in 2007 vine bush foliar treatment, with biologically active substances and with activated water, having Aquator-transferred properties of substances, produced significant effects upon improvement of Bianca grape yield rates as compared to the control. For instance, treatment of the bushes with Sprout solution increased the grape yield rates by 51.6%, with Silicon solution - by 63.8% and with Potassium Lignohumate solution - by 35.8%. Vine bush foliar treatment with Zircon solution did not produce any significant effects upon improvement of the grape yield rates as compared to the control.

It should be noted that, in each of the four test methods, where the vine bushes were treated with activated water, which had acquired properties of the preparations, the grape yield rates were higher than those resulting from foliar treatment of the vine bushes with BAS. For instance, grape yield rates, as per 1 ha, made: 108.0 centners after foliar treatment of the bushes with Sprout solution and 122.2 centners, or 13% higher than in the previous-mentioned case, after their treatment with activated water containing properties of Sprout preparation; 116.6 centners after foliar treatment of the bushes with Silicon solution and 120.9 centners, or 4% higher than in the previous-mentioned case, after their treatment with activated water containing properties of Silicon preparation; 96.7 centners after foliar treatment of the bushes with Potassium Lignohumate solution and 114.8 centers, or 18.7% higher than in the previous-mentioned case, after their treatment with activated water containing properties of Potassium Lignohumate preparation; 75.0 centners after foliar treatment of the bushes with Zircon solution and 80.0 centners, or 6.7% higher than in the previous-mentioned case, after their treatment with activated water containing properties of Zircon preparation.

In our test experience, no preparations other than Sprout or Silicon produced any effects upon the growth of average per-grape cluster mass. Activated water, which acquired properties of such preparations, improved average per-grape cluster mass to a greater extent, than did the solutions themselves.

As to grape juice saccharinity, in 2007 foliar treatment of the bushes, whether with the biologically active substance solutions or with the activated water, produced no significant effects upon it. In all test methods employed, including the control, grape juice saccharinity made between 24.2 and 25.6 g/100 cm3, except for the fourth test method, where the bushes were treated with Zircon solution, and where grape juice saccharinity made 23.0 g/100 cm3.

Within the vegetation time of 2008 researches have been continued. In the Table 2 data on grape quality and yield rates are presented.

Table 2:
Effects produced by vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances and with activated water upon yield rates and quality of grapes in 2008 (variety: Bianca)

Method Substance used for the purpose Grape yields Average grape
cluster mass, g
Mass per 100 grapes, g Grape juice
saccharinity, g/100 cm3
Centner/ ha %% of the control
First Sprout 96,2 102,3 100,7 158,3 22,8
Act. water 112,0 119,1 106,4 168,1 23,6
Second Silicon 94,7 100,7 73,0 122,0 24,7
Act. water 131,7 140,1 75,1 148,9 23,4
Third Potassium lingohumate 89,3 95,0 80,0 145,4 24,2
Act. water 125,9 133,9 70,4 144,3 23,1
Fourth Zircon 101,60 108,1 61,3 138,1 24,4
Act. water109,7 116,7 76,4 134,1 24,4
Fifth (control) Tap water 94,0 100,0 76,3 141,7 23,8

The data of the Table 2 testify that in vegetation time of 2008 vine bush foliar treatment, with biologically active substances - Sprout, Silicon and Potassium lignohumate- did not produce significant effects upon improvement of Bianca grape yield rates as compared to the control. The increase in grape yield rate on 8.1% in comparison with the control is observed in a method, where bushes were treated with preparation Zircon.

Probably, it has been connected with enough frequent atmospheric precipitation in May and June 2008, fungus infection and some damage of a crop by a hailstones.

However, it should be noted that, vine bush foliar treatment with activated water produced significant effects upon improvement of Bianca grape yield rates in comparison with the control and the methods, where bushes were treated with biologically active substances. In this case the grape yield rates were higher from 16.7% to 40.1%.

In 2008 vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances and with activated water produced no significant effects upon improvement of Bianca average grape cluster mass and mass per 100 grapes, except for a methods where bushes were treated with preparation Sprout and the activated water with properties of the same preparation. In 2008 foliar treatment of the bushes, whether with the biologically active substance solutions or with the activated water, produced no significant effects upon grape juice saccharinity.

In the Table 3 average data for the period 2007-2008 on produced effects by vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances and activated water upon yield rates of Bianca grapes are presented.

Table 3:
Effects produced by vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances and activated water upon yield rates of Bianca grapes (average for the period 2007-2008)

Method Substance used for the purpose Grape yields
Centner/ ha
%% of the
control
2007ã. 2008ã. Average
for 2 years
First Sprout 108,0 96,2 102,1 123,6
Act. water 122,2 112,0 117,1 141,8
Second Silicon 116,6 94,7 105,6 127,8
Act. water 120,9 131,7 126,3 152,9
Third Potassium lingohumate 96,7 89,3 93,0 112,6
Act. water 114,8 125,9 120,4 145,8
Fourth Zircon 75,0 101,6 88,3 106,9
Act. water 80,0 109,7 94,8 114,8
Fifth
(control)
Tap water 71,2 94,0 82,6 100,0

The analysis of the experimental data presented in the above table shows, that in average for the period of two year researches, vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances produced effects upon improvement of Bianca grape yield rates as compared to the control: by 6.9% in method with Zircon, by 12.6% with Potassium Lignohumate, by 23.6% with Sprout and by 27.8% with Silicon.

Vine bush foliar treatment with activated water produced effects upon improvement of Bianca grape yield rates as compared to the control agreeably by 14.8%; 45.8%; 41/8% and 52.9%. That is, it's much more in comparison with a methods where bushes were treated with solutions of BAS.

Therefore, the performed tests showed that water activated with use of BAS (Sprout humin-based preparation, silicon, potassium lignohumate and zircon) matrixes has a high-rate biological activity - higher than that of the preparations themselves.

The Kuban State Agrarian University
Viticulture Chair
Doctor of Agriculture
(Signed)
/Prof. N.V. Matuzok/
Chair Postgraduate
(Signed)
/O.V. Kamenskikh/




FGOU VPO
"THE KUBAN STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY"

Viticulture Chair

REPORT
Effects produced by vine bush foliar treatment with biologically active substances and activated water upon BIANCA grape yield rates and quality

KRASNODAR 2009


Purposes, objectives and essential conditions of experimental study (test) performed in 2009 were the same as those of the preceding period (2007-2008); the only difference was that the test field was extended through use of solid-phase matrixes of biologically active substances (BAS), namely: Silicon, Zircon and Sprout, and through use, as an additional control, of water activated by AQUATOR device in the no-matrix mode.

The tests were performed at vineyards laid in 1999 at KUBAN Training Farm of the Kuban State Agrarian University (Krasnodar).

Subject of the tests were grapes of BIANCA technical variety usable for technical purposes.

The vine bushes were planted along 3õ2m pattern; forming applicable: high-standard two-shoulder horizontal cordon. Vine bushes planted at that vineyard patch are non-sheltered.

The test included 13 methods for vine bush foliar treatment by the biologically active substances and activated water as follows:

  • Four methods for the foliar vine bush treatment with 0.1% solutions of BAS (Sprout, Silicon, Potassium Lignohumate, Zircon).

  • Four methods for the foliar vine bush treatment with water activated by way of properties of the afore-listed BAS transferred upon it, through use of AQUATOR device with a liquid-phase matrix.

  • Three methods for the foliar vine bush treatment with water activated by way of properties of BAS (Silicon, Zircon and Sprout) transferred upon it, through use of AQUATOR device with a solid-phase matrix.

  • Two control methods for the foliar vine bush treatment: with usual tap water and with water activated by AQUATOR device.

Each treatment method was applied to 15 test bushes. Within the vegetation period of 2009, four foliar treatments were made. The first treatment was made in the initial period of sprout and blossom truss intensive growth (second vegetation phase), the second one - just before vine blooming, the third one - 7 days after the vine blooming was over (at the grape growth phase), the fourth one - in the initial period of grape ripening.

The harvesting of 2009 was made in the first decade of September. Records of grapes so harvested were made as per each of the treatment methods separately. The harvesting included the counting-up of all grape clusters on the test vine bushes, as well as taking off the bushes, weighing-up and average mass estimation of one grape cluster per each treatment method. To estimate the mass per 100 grapes and grape juice saccharinity, average grape cluster samples were selected. Grape juice saccharinity was measured in vitro, with use of densimeter, in terms of specific must density.

In January 2009, short-term 25-26îÑ frosts heavily damaged central bourgeons of the hibernating buds. The loss of central bud bourgeons made, as per the experimental treatment methods, between 40% and 80%. The worst bud loss was reported for treatment methods, where, in the earlier years, foliar vine bush treatment with Potassium Lignohumate and Zircon solutions was practiced, and where tap-water vine bush treatment control was applicable. It should be noted that, to a certain extent, the bud losses entailed lower grape yield rates.

To a lesser extent, the frosts were deleterious to the vine bushes in case of test methods, where the foliar treatment involved use of Silicon and Sprout solutions and use of activated water appropriately treated through BAS matrixes.

Rates reported for grape yields of 2009 are stated in Table 1. Table 1 - Effects of foliar treatment of vine bushes with biologically active substances and activated water upon BIANCA grape yield rates and quality, 2009

Table 1

Effects of foliar treatment of vine bushes with biologically active substances and activated water upon BIANCA grape yield rates and quality, 2009

BAS Substance used for the purpose Grape yields Average grape cluster
mass, g
Mass per 100 grapes, g Grape juice saccharinity, g/100 cm3
centner/ha %% of the control
Sprout 0.1% solution 147,0 151,9 103 156 18,6
Activated water, liquid-phase matrix 176,1 181,9 122 95 21,2
Activated water, solid-phase matrix 156,7 161,9 116 165 18,8
Silicon 0.1% solution 158,9 164,2 98 154 18,6
Activated water, liquid-phase matrix 188,4 194,6 109 162 18,6
Activated water, solid-phase matrix 173,9 179,6 114 155 18,6
Potassium Lignohumate 0.1% solution 104,8 108,3 105 148 23,2
Activated water, liquid-phase matrix 107,5 111,0 112 151 22,0
Zircon 0.1% solution 116,7 120,6 103 140 29,9
Activated water, liquid-phase matrix 122,7 126,8 110 160 20,4
Activated water, solid-phase matrix 121,0 125,0 121 173 22,8
Control Activated water, no matrix 111,4 115,1 122 145 21,5
Tap water96,8 100,0 99 130 21,8

Data reported in the Table show that foliar vine bush treatment performed in vegetation period of 2009 with use of the biologically active substances and activated water, with properties of the afore-said substances (preparations) transferred upon it by AQUATOR, produced significant effects upon improvement of BIANCA grape yield rates as compared to the controls.

The highest grape yield rate was reported for foliar vine bush treatment with activated water, with use of liquid-phase matrixes, namely: Silicon (188.4 centner/ha) and Sprout (176.1 centner/ha).

Therefore, tests performed in 2009 proved that water activated with use of matrixes of BAS (Sprout, Silicon, Potassium Lignohumate and Zircon) is highly active biologically.


The Kuban State Agrarian University
Viticulture Chair
Doctor of Agriculture
(Signed)
/Prof. N.V. Matuzok/
Round seal: Russian Ministry of Agriculture*
The Kuban State Agrarian University* A
federal state education institution for higher
vocational education* Department of
Horticulture and Viticulture*

What is Aquator? | What is it for? | Results of researches | Patent
Farming | Presentations | Publications | Awards | Contacts
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